Any of a class of large, self-propelled,
wheeled vehicles designed to carry passengers, generally on a fixed route
can be termed a bus. Developed at the beginning of the 20th century, to
provide greater route flexibility, it was the natural outgrowth of the
horse-driven coach. In the present moment, buses are defined as vehicles
that accommodate more than 10 passengers.
In 1830, Sir Goldworthy Gurney of Great Britain designed a large
stagecoach driven by a steam engine that may have been the first
motor-driven bus. It was Germany's turn next to design an eight-passenger
omnibus, driven by a four-horsepower single-cylinder engine in 1895. Sight
seeing companies were the firs to introduce buses in the United States.
One type of these open vehicles built by Mack Trucks, Inc., in 1904 had a
nominal seating capacity of 15 with a four-cylinder gasoline engine
developing 36 horsepower at street speeds of up to 20 miles per hour (32
kilometres per hour).
Technically, the early bus resembled the motor truck. Until the 1920s the bus consisted
of a bus body mounted on a truck chassis. 1921 saw the development of a
chassis specifically meant for a bus. This was manufactured in the United
States and was made by the Fageol Safety Coach Company of Oakland, Calif.
This new frame was one foot lower than a truck frame. In 1926 Fageol
developed the first integral-frame bus, with twin engines mounted
amidships under the floor. The integral frame utilized the roof, floor,
and sides of the bus as structural members.
Mack and Yellow Truck & Coach of the United States were among the
other early bus manufacturers in the United States, both of which built
gasoline-electric models. In these buses a gasoline engine drove a
direct-current generator, and the output of the generator provided
electrical power for the driving motors on the rear wheels. This
electrical system performed the functions of a transmission by multiplying
driving torque and providing a means of connecting and disconnecting the
engine from the drive wheels.
service was introduced in the United States in 1928. The first rear engine
in an integral-frame bus was introduced in 1931. Two-stroke-cycle diesel
engines were first used in buses in 1938 and were found in most city and
intercity models for the next 40 years.
Introduced in 1953, air suspensions continue to be employed on
integral-frame bus models. They consist of multiple heavy rubber bellows,
air springs, mounted at each axle. The air springs are supplied with air
from a reservoir in which pressure at about 100 pounds per square inch
(690 kilopascals) is maintained. An advantage gained from this type of
suspension is that as the load increases or decreases, the level and
height of the vehicle remain constant.
History of Jeep
The history of the jeep begins with the Bantam car company which built a
couple of thousand light four wheel drives for the US army in 1940. Its
name came from its military designation: vehicle, G.P. (general purpose)
that soon became jeep. One of the rarer and more unusual 4x4 variants was
the amphibious Jeep - a miniature DUKW, a Jeep with a hull built around
The jeep was one of the most outstanding light vehicles of World War II.
Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, it was an important item
in lend-lease shipments to the Soviet Union and other allies.
It weighed 1 1/4 tons, was powered by a four-cylinder engine, and was
classed as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. Built originally for
military purposes, it was capable of operating on rough terrain thanks to
its high clearance and four-wheel drive, climbing 60 percent grades and
fording shallow streams.
Its best speed on the road was 65 miles (105 kilometres) per hour. It
could be used for varied purposes in the military such as a command car;
reconnaissance car; light weapons, ammunition, and personnel carrier; and
The jeep was sometimes armoured for combat missions (weasel) and was
produced with a waterproof hull and propeller, giving it amphibious
capabilities. After World War II the jeep has found wide applications in
History of Tractors
The invention of tractors drastically transformed the agricultural
industry. They altered the way farming had been done for countless years,
during which only minor improvements had been made. The new machinery
enabled the production of vast amounts of food that leading to great
technical progress of the twentieth century.
The first engine powered farm tractors used steam engine and were
introduced in 1868. Built as small road locomotives, these engines were
operated by one man, provided the engine was less than 5 tons in weight.
They were used for general road haulage and in particular by the timber
trade. The most popular steam tractor was the Garrett 4CD.
In 1907, the first experimental gas powered tractor produced by Henry
Ford under the direction of chief engineer Joseph Galamb. However, this
machine was referred to as an "automobile plow" and not a
'tractor'. Gas powered tractors began to be used extensively in farming